Hai Duong is the central province of the northern Delta, in the pivotal economic area of northern provinces, bordering Hai Phong city in the east, Hung Yen province in the west and Thai Binh province in the south. The province has a natural area of 1,660.9 sq.m.
The name Hai Duong, which means "the light illuminated from coastal area", was officially given to the place in 1469.
Land administration throughout the history
Hai Duong was established from the Stone Age and has experienced many changes in names and land administration throughout the history. It was initially a part of Duong Tuyen (in the period of King Hung), Giao Chi and Giao Chau (during the 1st millennium) and then became Nam Sach Lo or Hong Lo (under the period of Ly and Tran dynasty); Hong Chau or Nam Sach Chau (in the late 16th century) and Thua tuyen Hai Duong (in the 10th year of the King Quang Thuan - 1469). In 1831, Hai Duong province was officially established (then called East Province) consisting of:
+ Thuong Hong phu (chief town): Duong Hao, Duong Yen, Cam Giang, Thanh Mien, Tu Ky and Vinh Bao districts
+ Nam Sach phu: Nam Sach, Chi Linh, Thanh Ha and Tien Lang districts
+ Kinh Mon phu: Giap Son, Dong Trieu, Thuy Duong, An Lao, Nghi Duong, Kim Thanh and An Dong districts
In 1887, An Duong, An Lao and a separated part of Thuy Duong made Hai Phong province. In 1889, Thuy Duong district was all cut apart from Hai Duong and in 1983, Tien Lang district and a part of Kim Thanh and Kinh Mon were integrated into Hai Phong
In 1947, during the resistance war against French colonialism, to make it favourable for the guidance and leadership, Dong Trieu, Chi Linh, Nam Sach and Kinh Mon became part of Hong Quang provimce. In 1954, those districts merged again into Hai Duong. In 1960, Dong Trieu was permanently integrated into Hong Quang and Vinh Bao merged into Kien An province.
From 1960, there were Ninh Giang, Tu Ky, Gia Loc, Thanh Mien, Binh Giang, Cam Giang, Nam Sach, Kinh Mon, Kim Thanh, Thanh Ha, Chi Linh and Hai Duong town in Hai Duong
In March 1968, pursuant to Decision No. 504/ NQ-TVQH of National Assembly Standing Committee, Hai Duong and Hung Yen became Hai Hung province with 20 districts and two towns inclusive of Hai Duong chief town.
In April 1979, Gia Loc and Tu Ky districts were integrated into Tu Loc; Thanh Mien joined with Ninh Giang to become Ninh Thanh; Cam Giang merged with Binh Giang to become Cam Binh district.
In April 1979, Nam Sach and Thanh Ha made Nam Thanh; Kinh Mon and Kim Thanh made Kim Mon
In June 1996, Ninh Thanh and Tu Loc were divided into Ninh Giang, Thanh Mien, Ty Ky and Gia Loc.
In January 1997, Hai Hung was separated into Hai Duong and Hung Yen with Hai Duong Town as the provincial capital.
In April 1997, Cam Binh was separated into Cam Giang and Binh Giang; Kim Mon was cut into Kim Thanh and Kinh Mon; Nam Thanh was divided into Nam Sach and Thanh Ha.
In August 1997, Decree No.88/ND-CP on upgrading Hai Duong from town to city was issued by the Government. Since 1997, there have been 11 districts in Hai Duong namely Gia Loc, Tu Ky, Ninh Giang, Thanh Mien, Cam Giang, Binh Giang, Nam Sach, Thanh Ha, Kim Thanh, Kim Mon, Chi Linh and Hai Duong city.
A brief introduction of Hai Duong history
Situated in Hong River Delta, one of four ancient provinces surrounding Thang Long citadel, Hai Duong has experienced many historical changes. The province's history is also the record of heroic victories.
In 905, Khuc Thua Du, of Cuc Bo village (Ninh Giang district) led the people to overthrow Northern feudal rule and gained national independence.
In the 13rd century, when Nguyen - Mong troops trampled on our country, in Binh Than port (a part of Nam Sach district), Tran Nhan Tong King presided over the meeting of royal members and officials to discuss the resistance scheme.
In May 1285, Tran dynasty's troops launched an assistance war against Nguyen - Mong troops and beheaded General Toa Do. Hung Dao Vuong Tran Quoc Tuan sprang a surprise attack against Thoat Hoan troops in Van Kiep and wiped out over half of Nguyen - Mong troops on July 10th 1285. In 1287, Nguyen troops led by Tran Nam Vuong Thoat Hoan again invaded our country. They were defeated by Hung Dao Vuong troops on Bach Dang River when they were waiting for provision boats. In April 1288, Thoat Hoan and other survivors ran through Van Kiep to the frontier.
In 1873, French invaders pushed back by the violent resistance of Hai Duong people. Ten years later, in 1883, French army turned back to occupy Hai Duong. The French resistance movement rapidly expanded across the province. French ambassador to Hai Duong admitted: "It cost us so much to succeed with the invasion".
In the early 20th century, the patriotic movement in the trend of democracy and capitalism ardently raised, typically Dong Du, Dong Kinh Nghia Thuc movement (1905-1907), movement on calling the release of Phan Boi Chau and movement in mourning for Phan Chu Trinh (1925-1926). In 1928-1930, Vietnam National Party established its branches in Hai Duong town and other districts namely Vinh Bao, Kim Thanh, Nam Sach, Chi Linh, Thanh Ha, Tu Ky and Dong Trieu. On February 15th 1930, in Co Am village (Vinh Bao), an uprising usurped the district chief's yamen and killed the district chief Hoang Gia Mo. Since then, although Co Am village was in bloody suppression, the uprising has been the evidence for the passionate patriotism and the undauntedness of Hai Duong people.
Since 1930, under the Party's leadership, Hai Duong people as well as the whole country persistently gained the authority (1930-1945) and waged the pro-longed two resistance wars against French imperial and American emperor (1946-1875) to the last end.
With reverberating victories of resistance wars throughout the history as well as the ancient cultural traditions, Hai Duong is nowadays proudly and powerfully affirming its position with great developments in the cause of socio- economic building and development. Hai Duong is making endless efforts to keep pace with the country's hourly and daily changes, and develop the traditions of a rich and beautiful heroic and cultural land.